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Nasal polyps are swellings of the normal nasal lining that occur inside the nasal passages and sinuses (air-filled spaces behind the nose, eyes and cheeks).
They are typically pearly in colour and can vary in size. Each polyp is teardrop-shaped, and can look like a grape when fully grown.
You may not always know if you have nasal polyps because they can be difficult to see and don't always cause any symptoms.
Nasal polyps usually only cause problems if they are large or grow in clusters.
Symptoms can include:
The symptoms of nasal polyps can be very similar to those of more common conditions, such as a cold. However, colds tend to clear up within a few days, whereas nasal polyps usually won't get better unless they're treated.
You should see your GP if you have nasal symptoms that last a month or more.
Nasal polyps are thought to develop as a result of inflammation of the lining of the nasal passages and sinuses. The lining becomes increasingly swollen and then hangs down.
It's unclear exactly what triggers this inflammation, although certain things can increase your risk of developing nasal polyps, including:
Nasal polyps usually affect adults and are more common in men than women. They're rare in children.
Your GP will ask you about your symptoms and examine the inside of your nose.
Further tests carried out at the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department of your local hospital will often be needed to confirm polyps and to determine how large they are and how many you have.
Nasal polyps can be difficult to get rid of permanently, but steroid medication can often help shrink them, and surgery to remove them can be carried out if medication doesn't help.
The main treatments are:
As polyps can grow back after treatment, including after surgery, you will usually be advised to continue using corticosteroid nasal sprays to help stop them returning quickly.
Read more about how nasal polyps are treated.
Nasal polyps can be difficult to get rid of permanently, but steroid medication can often help shrink them, and surgery can be carried out to remove them if medication doesn't help.
Your GP or specialist may initially prescribe nose drops or a nasal spray that contains steroid medicine (corticosteroids). These can reduce inflammation in your nose and help shrink your polyps.
Steroid nose drops may be recommended first because these generally work faster than sprays. However, they are usually only prescribed for around two weeks because they can cause side effects.
Common side effects include:
If your symptoms improve while taking the drops, long-term treatment with a steroid nasal spray will usually be recommended to reduce the chances of the polyps returning quickly.
Speak to your GP or specialist if your symptoms don't improve while using a steroid spray or nose drops. You may require additional treatment with steroid tablets.
If you have large polyps, or you still have symptoms after using steroids drops or sprays, a short course of steroid tablets (oral corticosteroids) may be recommended in combination with nose drops.
A medication called prednisolone is usually used. It's likely you will be prescribed no more than 5 to 10 days' worth as using it for longer than this increases your risk of developing side effects such as:
If your symptoms do not improve after taking steroid tablets, your doctor may suggest having surgery to remove your polyps. If they do get better, long-term treatment with a steroid nasal spray will usually be recommended.
Surgery to remove nasal polyps may be recommended if steroid medication doesn't help or your polyps are particularly large.
The procedure to remove nasal polyps is called endoscopic sinus surgery. It's carried out under general anaesthetic, sometimes as a day procedure.
The surgeon will pass an endoscope (a tube with a video camera at one end) into your nostrils to allow them to see inside your nose and sinuses.
Surgical instruments, such as a micro-debrider (a tiny motorised revolving shaver) are passed up your nostrils and used to remove the polyps. This means it's not necessary to make any cuts to your face.
After surgery, you will be observed for a few hours. If a dressing has been used, it will be removed from your nose after this time. If there is no bleeding, you will be discharged and allowed home to continue your recovery.
You will usually be advised to rest for around two weeks after surgery. Your surgeon will be able to give you more detailed information and advice.
Common problems that occur after endoscopic sinus surgery include:
Most people who have endoscopic sinus surgery will experience an improvement in their symptoms. However, it's common for polyps to grow back – usually within a few years – and treatment may need to be repeated regularly.
Long-term use of steroid nasal spray will usually be recommended after surgery to help stop polyps returning quickly.